两室一厅? 核心筒与分时空间 Two-bedroom Apartment? Core and Chronological Space

 

去年年底,《梦想改造家》和腾讯视频合作的一档网络节目《WOW新家》找到我们,希望在厦门完成一个小公寓的改造。当时退化建筑研究室刚刚成立,我们的其中一个研究项目就是两室一厅” — 一个关于由地产商提出的统一住宅格局与不同生活需求之间的矛盾的研究,恰好与这个项目契合,便应接下来。

Months ago, WOW New Home, which is a new media program collaborated with the popular TV program Dream Home, found us. They invited us to design a small apartment for 6 people family in Xiamen. At that time, we have just established our DevolutioN Studio, one of our study issues is “two-bedroom apartment”. The real estate raise up this issue to deal with the contradiction between repetitiveness of collective houses and difference of living necessity. We think this project matches the issue, we would like to offer one answer to the issue, so we accept the design invitation.

 

采光、通风很差的客厅,即便白天也需要借助灯光照明;尺寸过大的饭桌被闲置
The living room is lack of ventilation and nature light, people need to open the electric light even in the daytime. The over-size dinner table is not in use.

 

各空间动线混乱,去厨房必须经过卧室
The circulation between several spaces is not reasonable. People need to go through the bedroom if they want to go to kitchen.

 

由阳台改造的厨房 The kitchen is reformed from part of balcony

 

改造前的洗手间 The bathroom before reforming

 

节目组在厦门挑选的家庭是一对在厦门安家的80后夫妇。吕先生与陈小姐几年前从老家到厦门工作,在海沧落了脚。他们买的房子在海沧的生活区,是一个一房一厅,扣除公摊后实际面积43平方米,对小两口来说,虽不大,但也够用。但随着女儿的降生,状况开始有了一些变化。和许多年轻人一样,这对上班族夫妇忙于朝九晚五的工作,从老家来厦门的父母便承担起了小孩的日常照料工作。这个43平方米的空间,于是住下了吕先生夫妇、女儿及他们父母5人。为了应对这种状况,他们将厨房移至阳台,厨房空间被隔成一个只容得下一张床的小房间,吕先生夫妇住在里面,他们原本的房间则让给了父母。在原本的计划里,等小孩长大后换一个大一点的房子,但去年房价的一轮暴涨,让这个愿望短期内显然难以实现。现在陈小姐第二胎待产,这个43平米的房子即将随着第二个小朋友的降临而更加局促。

The WOW New Home program picked the 80s born young couple family whom settled in Xiamen. Several years ago, Mr and Mrs Lv moved to Haicang district, Xiamen. They brought a one-bedroom apartment in Haicang living quarter. It is 43 net living area excluded pool area . It is not big, but it was enough for the young couple. As the daughter was born, the situation changed. Like most of new couple working in the cities, Mr and Mrs Lv work from night to five on the weekdays. As a result, their retired parents also moved to Xiamen to help with taking care of Lv’s little daughter. Thus, five persons including Mr and Mrs Lv, their parents and their daughter, squeeze in the 43 home. In order to solve the problem, they moved the kitchen to the balcony. The old kitchen space became a new small bedroom which can only put a bed. Mr and Mrs Lv lived in the reformed small bedroom while their parents lived in their original main bedroom. They planned to buy a larger apartment when the baby grew up, but the house price in Xiamen city keeps increasing in an incredible way that practically they cant not achieve their original plan right now. Now Mrs Lv is pregnant again, the new coming baby would make the living condition even worse in turns of the limit space.

 

立在房间中央的排污管 Sewage pipe standing in the middle of the apartment

 

吕先生家的问题其实是一二线城市许多年轻家庭共同面临的问题,他们在选择更丰富的城市资源的同时其实也选择了更高的生活成本,将他们跟工作捆绑得更紧密。他们的父母因此从老家过来帮忙照料小孩,造成了三代同堂的新局面。不同的是,他们共同面对的是一个更小的城市生活空间。

The trouble of Lv family is normal, which most of the young families in the first or second-tier cities have to face. When young family choose to live in metropolis with better resource, at the same time, they have to pay more on living cost. This situation pushes them to work harder. So retired parents will move to their working city to help with raising their kids. Three generations will live together. They have to squeeze in even smaller living space.

在吕先生家这个只有43平方米的房子里,采光、通风资源集中在主卧一侧,客厅及先前他们隔出来的房间即便在白天也需要依靠照明,一般家庭粗放的灯光让这个缺乏足够隐私和生活空间的房子进一步降低了舒适感。

In this 43 apartment of Mr Lv, only main bedroom can get enough nature light and good ventilation. The living room and the reformed bedroom have to open electric light in the daytime. The exposing lighting, lack of privacy make the squeezed space even discomfort.

物品杂乱无章,无充足收纳空间 The stuffs are in chaos because Lv family did not have enough storage.

 

我们容易看到或想到的小空间做法是创造更多的收纳空间,这种做法常见于日本设计和家庭。但我们常常忽略一个前提条件,即生活在其中的人是否具备这样的收纳习惯?如果没有,那这样做的象征意义其实往往大于它的实际价值。

Designers would make more storage spaces to extend small living area. This method is normally used in Japanese home design. But it prerequisites people can be used to store living stuffs. If not, the design is not as valued as it meant to be.

关于空间的设计具有一种稳定感,同时也是难以避免的局限性。但这个三代同堂的房子里还有一种时间逻辑。虽是同一家庭,其实吕先生夫妇、他们的两个小孩、他们的父母在生活作息上有着明显的差异———吕先生夫妇早晨八九点钟出门工作,晚上六七点钟回家(陈小姐会回家吃午饭,吕先生中午外食);他的父母则在家安排三餐并照看充满活力的孙女,小朋友的睡眠时间则是老人看电视的娱乐时间。这种生活时间的交错为资源不平衡提供了一种解决可能。(加分时分析图)同时,幼年、青壮年、老年分别对应的活动空间、良好的休息空间和生活趣味这三个不同的问题,也成为改造必须去面对的东西。

Though spatial design can be counted on for solving problem, it has its limit. Meanwhile, the three-generation-living apartment has its own chronological sequence. There are time differences in between different family members. Mr and Mrs Lv go working at eight or night in the morning and come home around six or seven o’clock in the afternoon.(Mrs Lv usually comes back home for lunch at noon and Mr Lv eats lunch outside); their parents would prepare three meals at home and take care of the vigorous daughter. The child’s sleeping time would be parents’ recreation time. The interleaved time arrangement provides a possibility for balancing space resource. In the mean time, balance in different spaces like activity space, relaxing space and interest space for kids, young couple, old couple become the issues we have to solve.

核心筒概念空间 Core space concept

 

我们采取了一个核心筒的做法,将厨房、卫生间——这些基础功能区纳入其中,其他空间则围绕着这个核心筒展开。这样做一方面是排污管处于房子正中的客观条件制约;另一方面也是基于以上的时间逻辑。睡眠时间分隔成不同的独立房间,非睡眠时间则开启形成一个以核心筒为中心的循环空间。环状动线为小朋友舒展了更大的活动空间,同时也带动了空气流通和自然光源的导入;采光、通风最好的房间(原本的阳台处)作为吕先生夫妇的卧房保证了上班族夫妇的睡眠质量;不再受阳光直射的厨房、有着舒适灯光的客厅、更宽敞的用餐区,则在空间上增加了吕先生父母的生活趣味。

We design a core space. We put the basic functions such as kitchen, bedroom into the core. All the other functions act around the core. On one hand, the core concept solves the problem caused by the sewage pipe standing in the middle of the room; on the other hand, it bases on the chronological sequence. In the sleeping time, the apartment is divided into individual rooms; in the activity time, the space is open up to essential circulation space. The cyclic movement area provides running and playing space for kids; at the same time increases the ventilation and natural lighting condition. The bedroom with best lighting and air circulation is designed for Mr and Mrs Lv to guarantee sleep quality of the working couple. The family get a kitchen not exposed to the sunlight directly; a living room with soft lighting, a brighter and broader dining room; a more interest activity space for Lv’s parents.

 

沿着核心筒展开的空间规划 Space planning grown out of the core

 

核心筒打破了原本的公寓格局,也在某种程度上破坏了我们对家庭空间的惯性认识。对核心筒区域实际使用中排烟排气的担忧,其实现有的通风和抽油烟设备均能有效解决。一个需要容纳6个人生活起居的43平方米的空间,跟一个100平方米的空间在设计时应对的问题是完全不同的,它是一个极端住宅的模型,它要求我们在空间本身的功能缺失上去分级应对,将空间和人的生活的矛盾最小化,而不全然是风格、美学的优化。

The core breaks the original plan of the apartment, and also breaks our stereotype on our traditional family space. The advanced ventilation and evacuation system allow people not to worry about the ventilation of the core area in reality. A 43 area living with 6 people is totally different from a 100 space while designing. It is an extreme situation, which requires us to make hierarchy according to the functional importance. Not only optimizing in turns of style or aesthetics, but also minimizing the contradiction between people and space.

 

核心筒曲线对在有限空间里活动的小朋友来说更安全,也更有趣味
The curve of core is not only safer for children movement, but also more interesting within the limit space condition.

 

 

厨房和浴室 Kitchen and bathroom

 

厨房有充足的收纳空间 Kitchen with enough storage space

 

浴室外观 Bathroom

 

为厨房、浴室空间开窗户 Openings for kitchen and bathroom

 

为核心筒区域导入自然光 Introducing the natural light into the core

 

为核心筒区域导入自然光 Introducing the natural light into the core

 

餐厅 + 主卧 Dining room and main bedroom

 

儿童房 + 餐厅 Kids’ room and dining room

 

一大排大木柜,创造大储物空间 Wood cabinets create large storage space

 

次卧的床可灵活收纳,在白天可让整个空间成为一个环形区域,供小朋友活动
The bed can be put away in the daytime, allowing a circulous space for children activity.

 

这样的项目对很多在城市年轻家庭来说具有一定的普适性。但每个空间、家庭的情况不尽相同,充分基于生活在其中的人的设计是我们两室一厅研究的意义。这个项目里,核心筒也许解决了吕先生一家的某些问题,但也不代表它就普遍适用于这种面积的公寓空间,或这样的家庭结构。否则核心筒就跟两室一厅一样,成为一个思维定式了。

This project is suitable for most of the young family in the cities universally. Though there is little difference between different families or spaces, our study of two-bedroom apartment is  meaningful. In this project, the core solves some living problems for Lv family, but it does not mean that it can solve all the problems of this kind of family or this area of apartment. Or the core concept would become a stereotype like two bedroom apartment.

 

 

撰文Article: 王琦 Wang Qi
摄影 Photographer: 许晓东 Xu Xiao-Dong
关键词 Keyword: 核心筒 Core/分时空间 Chronological space/合适的光 Suitable lighting/自循环 Circulation

地点 Location: 厦门海沧 Haicang, Xiamen   面积 Area: 43

 

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